The Biography оf Hetman Ivan Mazepa

HETMAN IVAN MAZEPA / uk.wikipedia.orgThe future hetman was born on March,20,1639 in Mazepyntsi village,which was situated in Kyiv Region.IvanMazepa had been studying in two educational universities: Kyievo-Mohylansky i and Jesuit collegiums.During his youth he was serving as an indoor nobleman to Polish King II  Kazymyr, who then sent Mazepa abroad to end his education.After young man returned to Poland,he began to serve in Polish royal court again. Also Ivan Mazepa was entrusted with execution of different diplomatic missions in Cossack Hetman state [1, p.46].
In 1663,after his final return to Ukraine,the young nobleman got a title of Chernihiv pidchashyi.Six years later Ivan Mazepa began to serve to hetman of the right-bank Ukraine,Petro Doroshenko.Soon after that he became a general esaul.During his service to hetman Doroshenko ,who was a Turkish ally ,Ivan Mazepa fought against Poland.In the next few years (1673 and 1674) he was sent with diplomatic missions to Crieman khanate and hetman of left-bank Ukraine,Ivan Samoilovych [3, p.146].
There is an information given by some historical resources that told us an interesting case about the relations between Ivan Mazepa and Zaporozhian Cossacks.That case told us thatfuture hetman once was taken as a prisoner by commander of Cossack camp Ivan Sirko [2].
In 1676,after Doroshenko’s surrender to the Russian tsar,AlekseiMihailovich and hetman of left-bank Ukraine ,Ivan Samoilovych ,Ivan Mazepa decided to serve to the last.During this period of his career ,he often traveled to Moscow with different missions.In 1682 Ivan Mazepa became general esaul of hetman Samoilovych cabinet. After Ivan Samoilovych was deprived from his hetman’s title, on July ,25,1687 Mazepa was elected as a hetman in military council in Kolomak.At the same time there was concluded the Ukrainian –Russian pact, which was called «Articles of Kolomak» [2].
Speaking about the military activity of hetman Mazepa, we can not but mention, that during 1687-1689 hetman with his Russian allies organized two campaigns against the Crimean Tatars , who often robbed left-bank Cossack Hetman state.Unfortunately, those campaigns were not successful.During 1695-1696 there was a siege of Turkish stronghold known as Asov.This siege was ended in 1696,when the united armies of Cossack and Russians defeated Turks and entered the stronghold [3,p.161]
 
The main purpose of politics of Ivan Mazepa as Ukrainian hetman was to unite all Ukrainian lands (the right-bank and left-bank Ukraine ,West Ukraine )in one state and to create a strong autocratic hetman power in this class European type state.According to Mazepa ,this state should save the traditional system of Cossack rules.Besides ,in 1704 hetman  was able to incorporate the right-bank Ukraine because of the Northern War (1700-1721) between Russia and Swedish kingdom.It is important to know that no one from all that states wanted Mazepa to take the right-bank Ukraine as they all wanted to conquer it only for them [1,p.40].
Speaking about the internal policy we would likt to emphasis that Ivan Mazepa treated about the Ukrainian economy ,science ,education,culture,and art. During his rule (1687-1709) the Kyievo-Mohylanskyicollegium in 1701 became Kyievo-Mohylanskaacademy.This event was very important ,because collegium got new,higher status among educational universities of Ukraine and Russia at the beginning of 18-th century.Moreover,hetman Mazepa is known as a great   Maecenas of churches.As we know ,hetman gave great sums of money for the building of a few churches in Kyiv Region[4,p.407-416].
At the same time there were a lot of things in the hetman’s policy ,which did not like anyone.For example,Ivan Mazepa refused to cancel such type of state income as so called «oranda» (it was permission for the goldsmiths.An outstanding Ulrainianhistorian ,MykolaKostomarov emphasized  that hetman did not canceled»oranda» because of its financial profit for the budget of Cossack Hetman state.Besides,in 1701 Ivan Mazepa ordered to all peasants of Nizhyn regiment to serve two-day serfdom.Since the  start of Ukrainian national revolution in 1648 it was the first attempt to return serfdom for Ukrainian lands [2].
In 1701 hetman realized that Russian politics concerning Cossack Hetman state is baneful and that it is directed only for the limitation of the autonomy of to Charles 12th century of Sweden and Polish king Stanislav Leshcynskii.Hetman proposed to make a union against Russia because,to his mind, It was profitable for all those states .Finally Mazepa understood that Russian king Peter I was a despot ,the only wish of who was to create a great empire,in which had been lasted for more than 20 years exhausted Ukrainians.So that is why hetman decided to make such political move [1,p.41-44].
In October ,1708 ,Ivan Mazepa with an army which consisted of 5,000 Cossacks (according to another sources ,there were only 3,000 men) went to unite the Sweden army of Charles 12 thcentury.But hetman lost the capital of Cossack Hetman state,Baturyn ,which was destroyed by Russian army of AleksanderMenshykow [2].
Unfortunately,the united Ukrainian –Sweden army was defeated on June 27,1709 near Poltava.Ukrainian historians often make a conclusion ,that rhere were a few causes of hetman’s defeat : a long alliance with Russia,a secret union with Sweden and Polish ,which was not clear for biggest part of Ukrainians ,a powerful Russian propaganda against hetman,which was called «traitor» [2].After  that an old and ill Mazepa with Sweden army went to Bendery,which was situated in the lands of Moldova principiality and was under the Turkish power.Hetman of Ukraine died on August ,22,1709 [1,p.49].
References:
1. StanislavskyiV.IvanMazepa in the camp of Charles XII :Turkish vector of the diplomatic activity / ViacheslavStanislavskyi //Ukrainian historical journal.-2008.-№5.- P.39-49.
2. Tairova  –YakovlevaT.IvanMazepa and the Russian empire.The history of «treason» /TetianaTairova –Yakovleva.-K..Clio ,2012.- 403 p.
3. The Ukrainian encyclopaedic  vocabulary-calender /Complier :Yan Vikaliuk.-Ternopil:School book –Bohdan ,2003.- P.161.
4. Khvedchenia S.The building of churches in Kyiv Region by hetman Ivan Mazepa (late 17-18 centuries)/SerhiiHvedchenia // Ukrainian historical journal.-2005.-№12.-P.1.-P.407-416.
 
Oksana Hryhoryshak