Trypillian Civilization (6000-3500 BC)
Submitted by Editor on Mon, 11/28/2016 - 09:41
The Trypillian culture was one of the greatest cultural phenomenon on Ukrainian territory. It is an Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe. It extends from the Carpathian Mountains to the River of Dnister and also it extends on the territory of Romania and Moldova.
The Trypillian Culture was discovered in the middle of XIX century by Czech archaeologist Vincent Chvojka. This culture was named after the village of Trypillia, in central Ukraine. After such a discovery many Ukrainian and European archaeologists started to explore this culture and its peculiarities.
Many historians consider that the existence of the Trypillian culture is one of the most valuable stage in Ukrainian history. In addition, it must be admitted that it was spread on a huge territory – ca. 190,000 km2.
Trypillian culture is famous for its ceramic and clay pottery and figurines, bright colors and diverse patterns with were curved on the pottery and other. Moreover, trypillian people were first who started to use bow and arrows, spears and clubs.
Early period. At the 6th – 5th millennia BC the early tribes of the trypillian people came to the basis Dnieper and Southern Bug rivers in central Ukraine.
Their dwellings had a form of pit houses and above-ground clay houses. The floors were made of clay. The roofs were made of thatched straw and reeds. The walls were usually wooden, but with adding of clay and reeds. Their settlements were built in round or ellipse form on the plateaus near rivers.
Agriculture and farming were the main activities in tribes. Men hunted and were involved in farming, went fishing and did all hard work in the family. Women looked after children, cooked food and made clothes and pottery.
In the middle era trypillian tribes spread over a wide area from Transylvania in the west to the Dnipro river in the east, what meant that their population increased. Their dwelling, lifestyle and tools developed. Also pottery became a better quality. Their community had a patriarchal structure.
Late period. At this period farming was their main occupation. The most important was cattle, and sheep and goats played a lesser role. Moreover, dwellings were built differently than in earlier periods. At the end of 3rd millennium BC trypillian tribes started to disappear. There are different versions concerning their extinction. Some scientists consider that the main reason of this might be a natural disaster, other think it might be an epidemic.
As it was already said, trypillian culture is famous for its ornamental ceramic and clay pottery. They used it for different purposes for example, to store food and crops in it. In addition, trypillian people made various sculptures, women-like terracotta figurines, as they had a cult of woman. They decorated them with patterns and painted them in black color. Some of them were used in rituals.
Archaeologists often find a special building located in the center of settlement with they identify as sacred sanctuaries. Ancient trypillian tribes worshiped at spirits of nature and gods. They made rituals, sacrifices to the god of harvest and other spirits. For this they used artifacts such as clay figurines or statues. Archaeologist have also found totems on the settlements.
Some historians suppose that dog and house were domesticated by the trypillian tribes, but it's only a theory.
Genetic scientists claim that trypillian people are ancestors for the 55% of Ukrainian, mostly for women.
There was a cult of woman in trypillian culture, so they worship to every female being for example, earth, nature, water, love.
Trypillian culture was connected with Paganism. They performed different rites, but their meaning isn't discovered. However, the burial ritual is discovered the best. Due to this ritual, early trypillian tribes burned dead people, later they started to bury them in the fetal position, perhaps, in order to prepare them for reincarnation. They were buried in a hole with their families, property and belongings. Then their graves were filled with soil.
During archaeological missions scientists found many property, pottery and figurines of the trypillian culture. Now these things are in museums and exhibitions.
The true reasons of appearing and extinction of the trypillian culture are unknown. Historians and archaeologists still do not know what caused the decline of such a powerful and great civilization.
Done by Olshanetska Christina PhE 23