Welcome to Odessa
Odessa is a city located on the Black Sea coast of Ukraine. It is an administrative center of the Odessa region; cultural, scientific, tourist and trading center of the country. Odessa is the largest maritime trading port of Ukraine, a large automobile and railway junction. According to the population, Odessa is the largest city of the country after the capital of the state, Kiev, and the metropolis of Kharkiv. There are machine-building, chemical, oil-refining, food and light industry in Odessa. There are also 37 higher education institutions, 6 theaters, 8 cinemas, a philharmonic society, a circus, museums, galleries and many others.
The first settlements on the territory of the modern city were founded around the VII century BC. - III century AD by Ancient Greek sailors. Then the area was inhabited by the Nogai Horde, which after some time joined the Golden Horde. Approximately, in 1324 the fortress and settlement Kotsubiy was founded, which was later renamed Khadzhibey. On September 14 (25), 1789 the Cossack-Russian troops under the command of José de Ribas conquered it. It was after the capture of the fortress and the settlement was renamed to Odessa and received the status of the city. From 1819 to 1859, the trading regime of the Porto-Franco operated in the city, and that contributed to its rapid economic development. After the Ukrainian National Republic captured the Bolsheviks from Odessa, the Communists took over. During the Second World War, Odessa was occupied by the German-Romanian troops.
The historic center of Odessa since 2009 is on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. In the central part of the city, there is an ensemble of buildings of the late XVIII - XIX centuries in the styles of classicism, empire, modern, etc. Mostly, the cultural, architectural and historical monuments of the city are located within the streets of Primorskaya, Preobrazhenskaya, Bunin and Polish. There are many resorts in Odessa. Also under the city, there is a large network of underground passages and labyrinths, which forms one of the largest catacombs in the world with a length of tunnels of approximately 2.5 thousand kilometers.
The origin of the name
By the sixteenth century, Odessa was called Cochabia, and by 1795 Hadzhibey, which can be translated from the Ottoman language as ‘one, who visited Mecca’. At the end of the 14th - the beginning of the XV century, the northwestern Black Sea region became subordinate to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which was connected with the name of the Polish nobleman Kochuba Yakushinsky. The exact date of the settlement is unknown, and names differ at different times and in different sources, for example: Kochubiev, Kachubei, Kachubiy, Kachibey, Khadzibey, Hadjibey, Azhibei, and others like that. The first written mention of the port of Kotsubaev of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania dates back to 1415.
For the first time, the name of Odessa appeared on January 10 (21), 1795. The name may be related to the ancient Greek colony of Odessos (now it is known that the colony was located in the city of Varna). At the end of the XVIII century there was a tradition to give the Greek names to the cities (for example, Olbia, Sevastopol, Simferopol, Tiraspol, etc.). There is also another version that the name "Odessa" has gone from the Sanskrit Godesha (or Godesa).
The city has many "popular names". The "Odessa-mother", which has a slang origin and is a reduction from "Odessa-mother, Rostov-papa", is widespread. From time to time, such comparisons, names and phrases are used as "Pearl of the Black Sea", "Southern Palmyra" (compared with Palmyra - a city of amazing beauty, "Southern capital", " "Capital of Humor", etc.
The officially approved symbols of Odessa are the coat of arms, a large coat of arms, a stick and a hymn. The coat of arms of the city is a Spanish shield of red color with an image in the middle of a white anchor with four paws. The shield, on the big coat of arms, is framed by a decorative gold cardboard and crowned with a silver city crown in the form of three towers. Under the tower is the image of the Golden Star of the hero city, cut with gold and diamond. The flag consists of a rectangular cloth divided into three straight lines - red, white and yellow. In the central, white, stripes in the middle is the emblem of the city. The last change of the fee and coat of arms was approved on April 29, 2011. On August 25, the same year, the "Charter of the territorial community of Odessa" was approved. According to it, the official anthem of the city is "The Song of Odessa" from the operetta Isaak Dunaevsky "White Acacia".
In general, the climate of Odessa is moderately continental, with mild winters, a relatively long spring, warm and long, often very hot, summer, as well as a long and warm autumn. The average annual air temperature is +10.1 ° C. It is the lowest in January (-1.7 ° C), and the highest in July (+21.4 ° C). On average, a yearly precipitation in Odessa is 464 mm, the least in October, and most of all in July. The minimum annual rainfall (196 mm) was observed in 1921, the maximum (765 mm) in 2004.
Odessa is the center of the Odessa agglomeration with a population of up to 1.5 million people. As of January 1, 2017, the population of Odessa was 1 010 783 persons. During the last census of 2001, the population of Odessa was 1,010 people, during the penultimate Soviet census in 1989 - 1,151,000 people.
According to the 2001 census, the majority of the population of the city are Ukrainians - 61.6%, Russians make up 29%, and all other nationalities make no more than two percent of the population: Bulgarians - 1.7%, Jews - 1 , 2%, Moldovans - 0,7%, Byelorussians - 0,6%, Armenians - 0,4%, etc.
by Lyubov Kozycka